Backbencher: An MP who doesn’t hold a government position.
Bills: Proposals for new laws.
Brexit: The UK’s exit from the EU.
Budget: The government’s plan for spending and taxation.
Cabinet: A group of senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister.
Chancellor of the Exchequer: The government minister responsible for finances.
Constituency Office: An MP’s local office to help constituents.
Constituency: A specific area represented by an MP.
Council: Elected representatives for local government.
Councillor: A member of a local council.
Crossbenchers: Independent members of the House of Lords.
Democracy: A system where people choose their leaders through elections.
Devolution: Giving power to regional governments (e.g., Scotland, Wales).
Dissolution: Ending a parliamentary session before an election.
Election: A process where people vote for their preferred candidate or party.
Electoral Register: A list of eligible voters.
Eurosceptic: Someone opposed to the European Union.
First-past-the-post: The electoral system where the candidate with the most votes wins.
Government: The party or coalition that runs the country and makes laws.
Hansard: Official record of parliamentary debates.
Hereditary peer: those whose right to sit in the Lords is due to their title being inherited from their fathers (or, much less frequently, their mothers)
House of Commons: Elected part of Parliament.
House of Lords: Appointed and hereditary members of Parliament.
Hustings: Public meetings where candidates discuss their policies.
Legislation: A law or a set of laws that have been passed by Parliament. The word is also used to describe the act of making a new law.
Legislative: Having the power to make laws
Life peer: a person who is given the honour of a title such as “Lord” and a place in the House of Lords as a reward for the good things they have done for the country. This honour cannot be inherited by the recipient’s children (in contrast to a hereditary peer)
Lobbying: Trying to influence politicians’ decisions.
Lord Chancellor: A government minister in charge of the legal system.
Manifesto: A document outlining a party’s policies.
Monarchy: A system with a king or queen as the (symbolic) head of state.
Motions: Proposals made during parliamentary debates.
MP (Member of Parliament): A person elected to represent an area in the UK Parliament.
No-Confidence Vote: A vote to express lack of support in the government.
Opposition Leader: The leader of the largest party not in government.
Opposition: Political parties not in government.
Parliament: The place where laws are made, consisting of the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
Party: A political group with similar beliefs and goals.
Peer: A member of the House of Lords
Prime Minister (PM): The leader of the ruling party and head of government.
Proroguing: Temporarily suspending Parliament.
Red Line: A non-negotiable demand in politics.
Referendum: A public vote on a specific issue.
Royal Assent: The final step for a bill to become law.
Safe Seat: An area where one party consistently wins elections.
Select Committee: A group of MPs examining specific issues.
Sovereignty: The supreme authority of a state.
Speaker: The person who presides over debates in the House of Commons.
Spin Doctor: A person who manages a politician’s image.
Whip: A party official who ensures MPs attend votes.
White Paper: A government policy proposal.